Friday, April 24, 2009

Open Source Google for Everyone

There's a real 'spike' of activity going on at the Apache Software Foundation at the moment. I wrote about CouchDB in an earlier post, but there are a number of very interesting projects running currently. Probably the most significant is Hadoop. Hadoop was promoted to an Apache 'Top Level Project' a year ago but it's now taking off in the Open Source community.

Hadoop is a highly distributed computing middleware designed to process petabytes of data across 1000's of commodity hardware nodes. It implements a computational approach called Map/Reduce across a distributed file system to deliver a highly fault tolerant compute platform to process very large data sets in parallel. Hadoop is 'inspired' by Google BigTable.

So how does it work?

There are two major components to Hadoop:
  • HDFS - a distributed file system that replicates data across many nodes
  • Map/Reduce - an execution middleware that distributes processing to nodes where the data resides
Files loaded onto HDFS are split into chunks and these chunks are replicated to every node in the Hadoop cluster. System monitoring responds to hardware and processing failures to replicate data to other nodes providing very high levels of fault tolerance.

In the Hadoop programming framework data is record orientated. Input files are broken into records, lines or whatever sub element is appropriate for the processing application logic. Each Hadoop process running on a node processes a subset of these records. Essentially, if at all possible, processes act on data local to the node hard disk and do not transfer data across the network. The Hadoop approach has a strategy of moving computation to the data rather than the data to the computation. This is what gives Hadoop it's performance.

The splitting and recombining of data and processing is handled using a Map/Reduce algorithm. Here records are processed in isolation by tasks called Mappers. The output from the Mappers is then brought together into a second set of tasks called Reducers, where results from different mappers can be merged together

The clever aspect of Hadoop is that it takes pretty much all of the cluster and distributing processing away from the Developer, letting him focus on the application logic.

In my early programming career I worked on Apollo Domain Workstations, and I always remember one of the coolest programming examples that shipped with the operating system (AEGIS) was a Mandelbrot generator that executed elements of the set on different nodes in the network in parallel. That was my first experience of the power of distributed parallel computing. The problem with the program though is that all the inter-process and node communication was coded 'low level' through TCP socket programming etc. If I remember rightly, most of the code was handling all of this IPC stuff rather than generating the Mandelbrot sequences. This is the exact problem Hadoop solves.

The architecture of Hadoop exhibits flat scalability. On a cluster with small data sets the performance advantage is minimal, if at all. Once your program is running on two nodes with a 1 GB of data, it'll scale to thousands of nodes and petabytes of data without modification.

For an example Hadoop application imagine you wanted to write a program that counted unique occurrences of words in multiple text files. Example text files would look like:
text1.txt: google is the best search engine

text2.txt: a9 is the better search engine

The output would look like:
a9 1
google 1
is 2
the 2
best 1
better 1
search 2
engine 2

A pseudo code for a Map Reduce approach for solving this looks like:
mapper (filename, file-contents):
for each word in file-contents:
emit (word, 1)

reducer (word, values):
sum = 0
for each value in values:
sum = sum + value
emit (word, sum)

Several instances of the mapper function get created on different machines in the cluster. Each instance receives a different input file (it is assumed that we have many such files). The mappers output (word, 1) pairs which are then forwarded to the reducers. Several instances of the reducer method are also instantiated on the different machines. Each reducer is responsible for processing the list of values associated with a different word. The list of values will be a list of 1's; the reducer sums up those ones into a final count associated with a single word. The reducer then emits the final (word, count) output which is written to an output file.

The Hadoop distribution ships with a sample Java program that, essentially, does a similar task. It's available in the Hadoop distribution download under src/examples/org/apache/hadoop/examples/ This is partially reproduced below:

public static class MapClass extends MapReduceBase
implements Mapper {
private final static IntWritable one = new IntWritable(1);
private Text word = new Text();

public void map(LongWritable key, Text value,
OutputCollector output,
Reporter reporter) throws IOException {
String line = value.toString();
StringTokenizer itr = new StringTokenizer(line);
while (itr.hasMoreTokens()) {
output.collect(word, one);

* A reducer class that just emits the sum of the input values.
public static class Reduce extends MapReduceBase
implements Reducer {

public void reduce(Text key, Iterator values,
OutputCollector output,
Reporter reporter) throws IOException {
int sum = 0;
while (values.hasNext()) {
sum +=;
output.collect(key, new IntWritable(sum));

The final component of the Map/Reduce algorithm is the Driver. The driver initializes the job and instructs the Hadoop platform to execute your code on a set of input files, and controls where the output files are placed.

public void run(String inputPath, String outputPath) throws Exception {
JobConf conf = new JobConf(WordCount.class);

// the keys are words (strings)
// the values are counts (ints)


FileInputFormat.addInputPath(conf, new Path(inputPath));
FileOutputFormat.setOutputPath(conf, new Path(outputPath));


The Apache Hadoop project also has a number of sub-projects that utilise or complement the core Hadoop middleware including:
  • HBase - a distributed database
  • Pig - a high-level data flow language to ease the development of parallel programs for Hadoop
  • Zookeeper - a management middleware for Hadoop
  • Hive - a data warehousing infrastructure
  • Mahout - machine learning libraries supporting a Map / Reduce processing model
So is any one using Hadoop and what for?

You bet, probably the biggest names using Hadoop are Facebook , Amazon and Yahoo. Facebook is using Hadoop to perform analytics on it's service, Amazon's using it for producing the product search indicies for it's A9 search engine. Even Microsoft is getting in on the act via its acquisition of Powerset, a NLP search engine. Yahoo use Hadoop to fight spam.

The New York Times used a Hadoop based solution to process 11 million TIFF images to PDF, all running on Amazon's EC2 and S3!

A company called Cloudera has started offering development, consulting and implementation services to clients wanting to implement Hadoop solutions.

I believe the future for Hadoop looks good. It opens up a whole area of large scale parallel computing to organisations and companies which just wasn't available before without dedicated supercomputing capabilities. You couple Hadoop with on-demand Cloud computing with services such as Amazon's EC2 and S3 then you have supercomputing for the masses.

Google's success was built on the foundation of Bigtable and it's Map / Reduce technology, having such a technology as Open Source, I believe, will drive a whole new generation of Internet computing services and applications.

Thursday, April 2, 2009

Role of the Business Analyst in Agile Projects

When I started my career in software in the mid 1980s it was in the role of Analyst / Programmer, the roles Software Engineer, Developer, Architect just didn't exist - well not as official job descriptions.

Analyst / Programmer pretty much accurately described the role, I was responsible for understanding the business process and information requirements, eliciting system specifications, designing the system as well as implementation and test. Come to think of it I did a fair bit of the deployment / system admin type activities also!

You still see Analyst / Programmer role descriptions appearing in Job Sites, but a big proportion of organisations have separated business analysis from development / implementation. I believe this is just a reflection of the general trend in the industry towards role specialisation. hence Data Architects, Security Architects, ERP Module Consultants etc etc.

I believe one of the problems with the Business Analyst role is that organisations sometimes do not put a clear definition of what the role is and how it bridges the business / systems divide. In my experience, a lot of Analysts have strong business or domain backgrounds but very little systems development experience. Also, a lot of Analysts I've come across in projects do not have any formal systems analysis / method training or experience, e.g. RUP / UML / SSADM / Yourdon etc. I'm not saying formal systems analysis is a sliver bullet, but having strong skills and experience in systems analysis helps to elicit a business problems into a system definition.

What can happen in delivery projects is a 'gap' can grow between the 'technically orientated' development team and the business analyst community. It can end up in Developers rejecting requirements for being too poor and vague, and Business Analysts getting frustrated that the system is not meeting the customer need. Lack of implementation / design detail in the requirements usually ends up with Developers making design assumptions in the code which can often turn out to be incorrect. Business Analysts, in some cases, can often end up being no more than proxies to the stakeholders.

The IS industry is littered with myths, and one of these that particularly annoys me is that statement that "techies" can't / won't / don't talk to the business, customers and end users. I will admit that people who go into Software Development and Programming do so because they are attracted by creativity of software and the technical aspects, but I've not yet come across a Developer who can't face off to the business if he's given the chance. I believe this myth ends up becoming self fulfilling as Developers don't get the opportunity to be more exposed to the business domain.

There's also the myth that end users cannot carry out any form of analysis out themselves. Most people now have PC's at home, Broadband Internet. I repeatedly come across end users who, when faced with a IS problem and no immediate solution, turn to customising Microsoft Office with VBA. IS professionals will, of course, "scoff" at this, but some of these solutions I've come across usually turn out to be quite smart given the limitations of the technology that's available to them.

The kinds of issues I've repeatedly seen with Business Analysis include:
  • Lack of formal training and systems analysis skills with the Analysts
  • Analysts having a lack of understanding of the capabilities of the technology and limitations of the architecture
  • Non functional requirements not defined as these tend to need some level of architecture understanding
  • Over analysis, or Analysis Paralysis, as it's often called
The Agile approach is all about avoiding these problems. At it's core is the philosophy that frequent working software in front of customers is the goal, iterative spiral development life cycles with emphasis on prototyping to elicit requirements rather than paper specs and the implementation team being as embedded into the customer domain as is feasible. So in an Agile projects, what is the role for the Business Analyst?

I don't believe that the Analyst role is dead, it just needs radically rethinking in the light of modern systems development.

I believe the key to improving the Analyst role is two fold:

Firstly get Analysts more cross trained in technical skills, not necessarily becoming proficient Developers, but gain an appreciation of current technologies and software development. Also ensure there have some level of formal systems analysis background to aid their "systems thinking" to eliciting business requirements.

Secondly, re-position the Analyst role to be one more focused on business change, process improvement, training and acting as a "champion" for the solution being built, rather than gathering and documenting requirements. I believe that this role is key to getting a solution deployed into an organisation and benefits realised from it.

If you want to find out more on this subject then I'd recommend an article on Agile Analysis by Scott Ambler.